The Personality of Julian the Apostate

Julian Statue by Tataryn77

Julian built a solid foundation for the successes he had as Caesar. It was not by sheer luck that he managed to beat back the barbarians in Gaul. But to understand the reasons for his success, we have to look at the habits of the man. How did he live? How did he use his newfound power? How did he use his time? Not only do these questions reveal the reasons for his success, they also reveal personality of the man.
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Becoming a Eunuch in Byzantium

Eunuchs were a distinct feature of Byzantium. Everywhere you looked, you would find eunuchs. They served in the Great Palace, the Church, the army, the government, wealthy households and even as professionals. During the early days of the Roman Empire, it was shameful to be a eunuch. But this view changed as the Roman Empire evolved into the Byzantine Empire. Eunuchs however, were not natural; they were after all castrated men. Where then did the eunuchs come from? How did a person become a eunuch? Why did the views towards eunuchs change in Byzantium? In this article, I shall look at the background of eunuchs.
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5 Things You Did Not Know About Byzantine Eunuchs

Byzantium was full of wonder and unusual events. Although there are no more eunuchs today, back in Byzantine times, eunuchs were valued members of society. The palace, in particular, prized them for their unique nature and employed them to look after and guard the imperial household. What follows are some interesting details that reveal a little more about the lives of eunuchs in Byzantium.
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The Vital Roles of Eunuchs in Byzantium

Eunuchs were a vital part of Byzantium. Many empires like Egypt, China, Japan and the Muslim Caliphates employed eunuchs. But none of them integrated eunuchs as thoroughly into society as the Byzantines. In Byzantium, eunuchs served in the imperial court, in rich households, in the army and in the clergy. They were everywhere you looked. Eunuchs with the proper skills and talents could hold any job they pleased. Read on to learn about the vital roles of eunuchs in Byzantine society.
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Battles Where Greek Fire Made a Difference

Greek fire was a potent weapon of war that helped the Byzantines to triumph over their enemies. Byzantium usually faced foes who had greater numbers and occasionally, greater wealth than them. There were many times in the empire’s history where the enemies threatened the Byzantine capital itself. But at such crucial moments, the skilful use of Greek fire helped the Byzantines to turn the battle and win. Read on to learn of some of the crucial battles where Greek fire made a difference.
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Greek Fire: The Byzantine Secret Weapon

Greek Fire by Wikipedia

Byzantium fought for its very survival throughout its existence. Often, the empire faced enemies who were superior in military and economic might. Despite these odds, Byzantium always managed to survive. One of the main reasons for its survival was the secret weapon: Greek fire. Used skilfully by its leaders, Byzantium managed to come back repeatedly from the brink of disaster. Read on to learn about Greek fire.
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Why Constantius II Executed Gallus

When Constantius II ordered the massacre of 337, he spared Constantius Gallus and his younger brother Julian due to their young age. For the next ten odd years, he kept his cousins under close guard, allowing them only to study. But in 351, Constantius summoned Gallus to see him. He was about to march west to crush the rebel Magnentius, who had usurped the throne. Since Constantius could not leave the east undefended against the Persians, he chose to make Gallus Caesar of the East. What Constantius did not expect was the need to remove Gallus a few years later. Find out why Constantius had to execute Gallus.
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How Barbarians Forced a Scholar to be a Caesar

Nobody expected Julian to do well as Caesar. All his life he had been nothing more than a scholar and a bookworm. What did he know about waging war or running an empire? With this in mind, the emperor Constantius II made sure that Julian’s chief officials reported to him. Although this curtailed Julian’s powers, it was better than losing the western empire. But all this caution was for naught. In the end, Julian proved his worth as a Caesar within a year of his ascension. Find out how he did so.
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How a scholar became Caesar

Flavius Claudius Julianus, known to posterity as Julian the Apostate was the sole emperor of the Roman Empire from 361-363. During his reign, he tried to revive the old pagan practices in place of Christianity. His pagan beliefs and actions earned him his famous nickname. But Julian did not seek the throne. Constantius II forced it on him. All Julian wanted to do was to study. Read on to find out the chain of events that led him to become Caesar.
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Dissension Amongst the Sons of Constantine

Constantine the Great preached and worked for unity throughout his entire life. Ironically, when he died, there was to be no unity in the empire. Not only did the church remain divided, even his sons could not stop fighting amongst themselves. The fighting led to instability and chaos at a time when external threats assailed the empire. Read on to find out who emerged victorious and how he did it.
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